Limitations of 6-minute Walk Test Reference Values for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Posted on: February 28, 2021 | By: amaddox2 | Filed under: Walk tests

Purpose: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is frequently used to assess the ambulatory function in those with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). With the trajectory of the disease showing improvements in gait patterns as treatments have become more effective, it is important that we are using appropriate healthy reference range values for the 6MWT to adequately assess progression in this population. This article aims to determine an appropriate healthy reference range to use for individuals with SMA.   Study Population: Nine articles were chosen for the systematic review after the inclusion and exclusion process. Of the 9 articles chosen, 3 viewed a healthy pediatric population (age range 3-19) and 6 viewed a healthy adult population (age range 20-81).   Methods: The researchers performed a systematic review of articles attempting to determine normative values for the 6MWT on healthy adults and/or children. The studies chosen for the review were selected from PubMed…

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Association between 9-minute walk/run test and obesity among children and adolescents: evidence for criterion-referenced cut-points – article summary

Posted on: February 28, 2021 | By: mmarazzi | Filed under: Walk tests

Title: Association between 9-minute walk/run test and obesity among children and adolescents: evidence for criterion-referenced cut-points. Authors: Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Justin J. Lang, Edio L. Petroski, Julio B. Mello, Adroaldo C.A Gaya and Mark S. Tremblay Monitoring aerobic fitness in the pediatric population is an important metric used to estimate overall health in children. Field-based tests, such as the 9-minute walk/run test, have been regularly used to measure the aerobic capacity of children as these tests have been previously determined reflect physical fitness levels. However, the literature describes a variety of definitions for appropriate cut-point to distinguish healthy and unhealthy aerobic fitness capacities. These inconsistencies pose a challenge for those evaluating aerobic fitness in children. Past studies have demonstrated that obesity in children is inversely related to aerobic fitness capacity. Therefore, the authors of this study sought to define an appropriate criterion-referenced cut-point in children and adolescence for the…

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Children and adolescents six minute walk test reference values article summary

Posted on: February 28, 2021 | By: mmoore47 | Filed under: T&M Tools, Walk tests

Article Title: Reference Values for the Six-Minute Walk Test in Healthy Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review   Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to compare and contrast the available reference values and six-minute walk test equation predictions in health children/adolescents across multiple studies.   Population: Of the 12 studies included in this systematic review, the total number of included participants across studies was n = 5615. Though there were difference age ranges examined in each of the 12 studies selected, the range across studies was 4-18 years of age. All studies included healthy children/adolescents without musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiovascular or respiratory disorders from 12 different countries. 10 of the 12 studies included both girls and boys. Of the remaining two studies, one examined only girls and one examined only boys.   Methods: Collection of data/studies followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Potential…

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Developmental Trajectories and Reference Percentiles for the 6-Minute Walk Test for Children With Cerebral Palsy article summary

Posted on: February 28, 2021 | By: aoxner | Filed under: T&M Tools, Walk tests

In the introduction the authors discuss how inactivity is a big problem in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) compared to those with normal development, and those with other pediatric disabilities. Due to the large problem of inactivity in those with CP, different types of physical activity such as walking have been identified as good interventions to use during physical therapy. The 6MWT was discussed as an excellent way to both exercise tolerance and endurance in children who are normally developing and in those with CP in order to monitor change in function and as an outcome following surgery. Previous studies have compared the 6WMT distances for Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels 1-3. However, those studies were completed in several different countries, and had variations made to the 6 MWT. The purpose of this study was to document long term development trajectories in 6MWT distances, along with age specific…

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Six-Minute Walk Test in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children Developing Typically – Article Summary

Posted on: February 27, 2021 | By: knunn2 | Filed under: Walk tests

Title: Six-Minute Walk Test in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children Developing Typically Authors: Diarmaid Fitzgerald, PT, PhD; Claire Hickey, PT, BSc; Eamonn Delahunt, PT, PhD; Michael Walsh, PT, MMedSc; Timothy O’Brien, MCh, FRCSI Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) in a sample of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) functioning at GMFCS Levels I to III and their age matched, typically developing children using a standardized test protocol. Study Population: The population of this study consisted of 145 children with spastic CP and 145 children that were typically developing and screened via the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. All of the children in this study including those with spastic CP and those typically developing were between the ages of 4 and 17 years old. Methods: Participants body mass and height were measured. A total of 145 children with spastic CP and 137…

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Methods of 10-Meter Walk Test and Repercussions for Reliability Obtained in Typically Developing Children – Article Summary

Posted on: February 27, 2021 | By: kmiller61 | Filed under: Walk tests

Purpose:  While there are large amount of studies that analyze the effectiveness of the 10MWT and different methods of it in pediatric populations with neuromuscular conditions, there are very few studies that assess these variables in typically developing children.  Therefore, the main purpose of this article was to assess the intrasubject reliability, test-retest reliability and agreement on four methods of the 10MWT in typically developing children. Population:  120 typically developing children of both sexes were included in this study.  There were four age groups involved, 6, 8, 10, and 12-year-olds, with a n=30 for each age group.  Inclusion criteria was being within the proper age range.  Exclusion criteria was having a history of fracture of the lower limbs or pelvis, deformities and diseases affecting walking, not understanding the commands of an examiner, and using a walking aid, prosthesis, orthosis, or insoles. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study design. …

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Changes in Lower Extremity Strength May be Related to the Walking Speed Improvements in Children with Cerebral Palsy After Gait- article summary

Posted on: February 24, 2019 | By: lchaffin | Filed under: Walk tests

Title: Changes in Lower Extremity Strength May be Related to the Walking Speed Improvements in Children with Cerebral Palsy After Gait. Purpose: Copious amounts of research have demonstrated that gait training can improve the ability of children with spastic cerebral palsy to ambulate. The purpose of this study was to determine if lower extremity strength increases secondary to gait training is the primary physiological cause of said increased ability to ambulate. Determining if lower extremity strength increases is the primary physiological cause would allow clinicians to supplement their gait training program with a focused lower extremity strengthening program when working with children with a diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy. Population: Children both male and female who have a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (either hemiplegic or diplegic). Ages of participants ranged from 6-17 and were a 2 or 3 on the gross motor function classification system. Methods: The participants were recruited…

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Modified Shuttle Walk Test Article Summary

Posted on: February 24, 2019 | By: kteague4 | Filed under: Walk tests

Purpose: to determine if a home exercise program using active video games (AVG), which in this case is the Nintendo Wii, is effective in improving exercise capacity, quality of life, and muscular strength in younger patients with cystic fibrosis.   Study population: 39 clinically stable children with cystic fibrosis from ages 7-18 years. Children who were lung transplant patients or if they had pulmonary rehabilitation within the last 12 months were excluded. Children with osteoarticular, neuromuscular, or cardiovascular comorbidities were also excluded. A final reason for exclusion was the inability to attend at least 80% of the intervention sessions.   Methods: This was a single blind randomized control trial. To ensure randomization, someone not involved in the study placed each child into either the control group or the training group. The staff who administered all outcome measures and questionnaires were also blinded to which group each child was in. All…

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Changes in Lower Extremity Strength May be Related to the Walking Speed Improvements in Children with Cerebral Palsy After Gait Training

Posted on: February 24, 2019 | By: lchaffin | Filed under: Walk tests

Title: Changes in Lower Extremity Strength May be Related to the Walking Speed Improvements in Children with Cerebral Palsy After Gait. Purpose: Copious amounts of research have demonstrated that gait training can improve the ability of children with spastic cerebral palsy to ambulate. The purpose of this study was to determine if lower extremity strength increases secondary to gait training is the primary physiological cause of said increased ability to ambulate. Determining if lower extremity strength increases are the primary physiological cause would allow clinicians to supplement their gait training program with a focused lower extremity strengthening program when working with children with a diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy. Population: Children both male and female who have a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (either hemiplegic or diplegic). Ages of participants ranged from 6-17 and were a 2 or 3 on the gross motor function classification system. Methods: The participants were recruited…

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Intensive upper- and lower-extremity training for children with bilateral cerebral palsy: a quasi-randomized trial

Posted on: February 24, 2019 | By: hbuckingham | Filed under: Walk tests

Title Intensive upper- and lower-extremity training for children with bilateral cerebral palsy: a quasi-randomized trial Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of HABIT-ILE (Hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy including lower extremity) on children with bilateral impairments form cerebral palsy. Methods Study Population: 20 children were included in the study. 10 were placed in the intervention group and 10 in the control group. These participants were from Brussels and New York (10 included from each). Inclusion Criteria Bilateral Cerebral Palsy in the CMFCS levels II-IV, between the ages 6-16, able to grab objects and lift 15cm above a table with most affected upper extremity, no cognitive impairments, and able to follow directions. Exclusion Criteria Children were excluded if they have had botox injections in the last 6 months, uncontrolled seizures, difficulties with vision, unable to walk a few steps with an assistive device such as a walker….

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