Category: Discriminatory

Archive for the ‘Discriminatory’ Category

Mar 06 2016

Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP)

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Barbosa VM, Campbell SK, Smith E, Berbaum M. Comparison of Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) item responses among children with cerebral palsy, developmental delay, and typical development. Am J Occup Ther. 2005;59:446-56.

The purpose of the above study was to analyze collected data from an individual Infant Motor Performance test (TIMP) in a sample of infants to determine which individual items were the best indicators for cerebral palsy. The TIMP has 28 observed items such as head centering and individual finger movements, while 31 items examine motor responses in various positions & visual/auditory stimulation. Each infant was assessed using the TIMP repeatedly from birth to approximately 4 months corrected age. Follow-up information was later collected after the study to see if any of the infants were diagnosed with Cerebral palsy at 1 to 11/2 years of age.

The study originally included 96 infants that were born from 1996-1998 that were at risk for poor developmental outcomes in Chicago. Once the study was complete, the 96 infants were then put into one of three groups at the 1.5 year old mark as: 1) typically developing (TD) 2) motor delayed (MD) and 3) having cerebral palsy (CP). The diagnosis was made based on a pediatrician’s clinical judgment and independent assessment of AIMS at 12 months of age for each infant. Scores below the 16th percentile rank on AIMS without diagnosis of CP was used to define DD. Since 11 infants were unavailable for a follow-up diagnosis, there were excluded from the study. During the study, eleven testers participated in the weekly TIMP assessment of the infants.

To analyze the data, a graphical and Rasch analysis were used. In the graphical exploratory analysis, the CP group compared to the TD and MD group had a better performance than average in items involving neck extension (E23) and lateral head righting in vertical suspension (E30/31). However, staring at 2 weeks post term, children with CP showed decreased ability to hold head in line with midline (E9) of the body in supine and continued to remain delayed compared to typical developing and those with delays and without CP despite improvements. Arm movements against gravity were also poor in the CP from 2-10 weeks (E14), but only reached average performance level of delayed infants at 12 weeks. The CP group also were less likely to inhibit trunk rotation to the side when head is passively rotated (E7/8), have poor anterior-posterior head control (E4/5) in supported sitting, and lateral hip abduction reactions (E22) and unable to mature. The CP group showed signs of difficulty at the 90-day mark with postural control compared to the TD and DD. The CP group also regressed in developmental skills such as antigravity hip flexion and kicking during the study, which was not present in the TD and DD groups.

The Rasch Analysis grouped infants by age of each development group and compared line items. The Rasch analysis showed the CP group having overall difficulty of 11 observed and 19 elicited items. Some key items include: head in midline, hand to mouth & trunk control in supported sitting. TD children compared to CP group had difficulty with head turning to the side in prone/supine, turning to sound in prone and arm movement in prone. Overall, the Rasch analysis identified the same 17 of the 30 items the CP group behaved differently in compared to the TD group in the graphical analysis group. The WINSTEPS statistical program used to analyze the DIF data.

Overall the study revealed that the TIMP did well in quantifying improvements in movement patters but there is still no proof of neurological impairments presenting the same at every age. However, most early atypical motor behaviors of children with CP presented the most at 90 days of age. One item of the TIMP that was highly significant in determining children with CP compared to DD without CP was decreased neck flexion when pulled to sit at 90 days. CP group also had consistent difficulty with movements against gravity compared to the other groups and supported other literature for preterm infants and infants who were later diagnosed with CP.

Mar 07 2016

Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2)

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Source: Pearson P.O. Box 599700 San Antonio, TX 78259

Cost:  Web-based administration, scoring and reporting

BOT-2 Q-global Complete Form Report: $2.00

BOT-2 Q-global Short Form Report: $1.00

Unlimited-Use Scoring Subscriptions

BOT-2 Scoring 1-year subscription: $35.00

BOT-2 Scoring 3-year subscription: $99.00

BOT-2 Scoring 5-year subscription: $149.00

Manual scoring

BOT-2 Complete Form Test Kit: $879.40

BOT-2 Fine Motor Kit: $541.10

BOT-2 Gross Motor Kit: $541.10

Reference:  Accessed March 5, 2016.


Cho et al. conducted a study that assessed motor proficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and had a control group to determine if children in Korea with ADHD have motor deficits.  They recruited 58 children with ADHD with mean age of 9 years 6 months ± 2 years and 70 controls with mean age of 9 years 2 months ± 1 year 7 months.  The children with ADHD were diagnosed by two psychiatrist based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The psychiatrist also administered the Korean Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version to determine if the children had any comorbidities.  The authors used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) to assess motor proficiency.  The children with ADHD had significantly lower mean standard scores in all 4 composite scores: fine manual control, manual coordination, body coordination, and strength and agility, and total motor composite score.  There were also no significant differences in age between the two groups, indicating children with motor deficits will continue to have deficits as they grow older and early therapeutic interventions are required.  Additionally treatment of motor problems could improve children’s self-esteem, learning, physical activity and overall development.

Cho H, Ji S, Chung S, Kim M, Joung Y. Motor Function in School-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Korea. Psychiatry Investigation. 2014;11:223-227.

Feb 27 2017

Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2)

Published by


Source: Pearson P.O. Box 599700 San Antonio, TX 78259

Manual Scoring:

BOT-2 Complete Form Test Kit: $898.00

Reference: Accessed February 27, 2017.


Lin et al. researched the effects of touchscreen use on fine motor development in preschoolers. 80 children (N=80; boys: 52; mean age 61.0 ± 7.6 months) without developmental delay were split into two groups of 40 based on prior usage of touch screen tablets. The children who used a touchscreen for more than 10 minutes a day for a month were placed in the test group, and the others were in the non touch screen group. Researchers utilized the BOT-2 to examine each child’s fine motor performance before and after the study, and they also assessed pinch strength using a hand held pinch dynamometer before and after the study. Both groups participated in 20 minutes of training activities per day for 24 consecutive weeks. The test group completed their activities on an iPad for 20 minutes while the non touch screen group completed age appropriate activities (play dough, using scissors, drawing, etc.) for 20 minutes. After completing the training and the BOT-2 again, results showed that the non-touch screen group had significantly higher scores in fine motor precision, fine motor integration, and manual dexterity. There were n significant differences in pinch strength. A strength of this article is that they were able to get 80 children to participate in the study and they also did not have any children drop out. They also used two very reliable measures, the hand held dynamometry for pinch grip and the BOT-2. A limitation of this study is that they did not examine other factors that could affect the use of touch screens on fine motor development such as cognitive and visual skills. Although the y were able to complete this study on 80 children, they were not a good representation of all socioeconomic classes so the results may not be able to be applied to the general population. This research shows us the importance of not relying too much on the new technology of today because sometimes, as it is in this case, it is best for kids to play with crafts, even if its just for 20 minutes. This can also help to improve a child’s creativity and social skills.


Lin L-Y, Cherng R-J, Chen Y-J. Effect of Touch Screen Tablet Use on Fine Motor Development of Young Children. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Pediatrics. 2017;0(0):1-11. doi:10.1080/01942638.2016.1255290.

Feb 27 2017

Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP)

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Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP): discriminatory, predictive (according to

  • Newly launched online learning program for the TIMP
    • 9 learning modules, which includes lectures by the TIMP designers and other workshop instructors, videos of the TIMP in action, and comprehension assessments of the material and score test item video clips
    • $500 for individual course enrollment (discount for 4 or more enrollees)
  • Materials required for testing:
    • Rattle with a soft, not sharp or harsh sound. Maracha toys are suitable as are plastic eggs or boxes filled with popcorn or rice.
    • Squeaky object with a soft, not whispery nor harsh sound; many 4-5” dog toys from pet stores are useful but latex items must be avoided.
    • Shiny red ball approximately 55 mm or 2 inches in diameter.
    • An age calculation wheel that allows automatic calculation of corrected age or chronologic age up to 18 weeks post-term based on expected date of birth is required to accurately evaluate performance against age expectations from the TIMP and TIMPSI normative studies; specially designed wheels for this purpose are available for sale on the TIMP products page
  • Otherwise, all other information up to date.
  • Review of article utilizing TIMP:

Cardoso, Aline Christine das Neves, Ana Carolina de Campos, Mariana Martins dos Santos, Denise Castilho Cabrera Santos, and Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha. “Motor Performance of Children With Down Syndrome and Typical Development at 2 to 4 and 26 Months:” Pediatric Physical Therapy 27, no. 2 (2015): 135–41. doi:10.1097/PEP.0000000000000120.

The purpose of this article was to compare the gross motor performance of typically developing (TD) children and children with Down Syndrome (DS) and see if there was a relation between their early motor development (2 to 4 months old) and outcome at an older age (2 years old). Data was collected in two phases: Phase 1 was performed when both groups (TD & DS) were 2-4 months old and used the TIMP to look at gross motor movement; Phase 2 was performed when the children were 2 years old and used the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) to assess gross motor movement. In Phase 1, 10 TD infants were compared to 7 infants with DS. Ten of these original 17 participants returned for Phase 2 so therefore, 15 more children were recruited to participate in Phase 2, totaling 25 children: 13 TD, 12 DS. Depending on the Phase, the respective test was administered, scores recorded, and a two-way ANOVA for the TIMP to compare the effect of group and age on the scores, whereas an independent samples t-test was performed for the Bayley-III scores to compare the TD & DS groups in Phase 2. The researchers found that TD infants scored significantly higher on the TIMP and the Bayley-III than DS infants. The regression analysis that was performed to compare the two tests, generated results that supported the TIMP’s predictive abilities of motor performance later in life compared to the results found during the child’s early months. This study’s strengths are: well organized, thought-out topic, good analytical testing performed to assess results found during the phases, and good interpretation of the data. The limitations of this study are: small sample size, high dropout rate between phase 1 and phase 2 making it hard to compare results found in phase 1 to phase 2. Overall, this article did a great job of utilizing the TIMP for children with potential delays in motor development (in this instance Down Syndrome), and was able to support it’s discriminatory and predictive qualities.

Mar 01 2017

Bruininks Osteretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2)

Published by

No further updates to provide.


Article Review:

Marmeleira J, Veiga G, Cansado H, Raimundo A. Relationship between motor proficiency and body composition in 6- to 10-year old children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2017 Jan 3; 1-6.


Marmeleira et al. studied children 6-10 years old to determine a correlation between body composition and motor proficiency. These researchers used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Short Form (BOT-SF) to test gross and fine motor skills. The 156 participants were male and female elementary school-aged children. Body composition was determined through BMI (height and weight) and skinfold thickness (5 sites). Motor proficiency was determined by the BOT-SF, which includes the subtests of running speed and agility, balance, coordination, strength, reaction time, visual control, and dexterity. The results of the study found that 40% of the females and 30% of the males were overweight or obese. The participants with higher body fat performed worse than the participants with normal body fat in the gross motor tasks. However, body fat did not significantly affect fine motor tasks. The strengths of this study are the standardization of the protocol and the use of reliable outcome measures. The two main limitations of the study were the fact that it was a cross-sectional study and the participants all resided in the same town (convenience sample) so it may not be applicable to other populations. In conclusion, body composition may negatively affect gross motor skills in children aged 6-10 however, fine motor control tasks may not be affected. Further research is warranted with larger sample size, comparing with an intervention that induces weight loss, and over a larger geographical area.

Mar 03 2017

T.I.M.E. The Toddler and Infant Motor Evaluation (2017)

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All previous information has been reviewed and is up to date.

The following article summary is a continuation of the article “ Growth hormone improves mobility and body composition in infants and toddlers with Prader-Willi syndrome” summarized above.

Myers, S. E., Whitman, B. Y., Carrel, A. L., Moerchen, V., Bekx, M. T. and Allen, D. B. (2007), Two years of growth hormone therapy in young children with Prader–Willi syndrome: Physical and neurodevelopmental benefits. Am. J. Med. Genet., 143A: 443–448. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31468

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of early intervention growth hormone (GH) therapy on body composition, anthropometric measurements, and psychomotor development in infants and toddlers with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The study involved the enrollment of twenty-five infants and toddlers, ages 4-37 months, with PWS. The subjects were randomized into two groups: two years of GH therapy (1 mg/m2/day) or one year of observation without treatment, followed by one year of GH treatment (1.5 mg/m2/day). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was utilized to determine percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density, while x-rays of the left hand determined bone age. All measurements were repeated at 12-month intervals. Throughout the study, all patients received home-based physical therapy and speech therapy through the early childhood intervention program.

Motor development was determined by Toddler and Infant Motor Evaluation (TIME) and age of independent walking, while cognitive and language skills was assessed by the Capute Scales of Infant Language Development. Physical therapists, who were blinded to the study, assessed mobility and stability bi-annually using the TIME. The raw scores, centiles, and length/height standard deviation scores were analyzed to determine developmental growth in each group. Data was analyzed via the Statistical Analysis System using a t-test comparison between treatment and non-treatment groups linked to baseline, year 1, and year 2. Subjects who received GH experienced normalized height, increased lean body mass, and decreased percent body fat (P<0.005 for all parameters), along with increased development in language (P=0.05) and cognitive (P=0.02) abilities after 1 year of treatment compared to the non-treatment group. The 2 year data showed that accumulation of excess body fat was reduced and delayed, however, it was not prevented completely, and that independent walking age was reported to be 23.3 ± 4.8 months, slightly less than previously studied. Overall, GH was tolerated well, except for one reported case of scoliosis, and those treated were said to be more alert and energetic by their parents.

Major strengths of the study include that it was a blind, randomized controlled trial, performed over 2 years, and resulted in positive outcomes. The limitations of the study include decreased amount of change detectable in mobility and stability due to the floor effects of the TIME, there was no information regarding cooperation of therapy or the treatment provided, limited number of subjects, and that the results of the control group after the second year was not given. In conclusion, the study prompts that early referral to pediatric endocrinologist for consideration of GH therapy is beneficial in infants and toddlers with PWS.



Mar 03 2017

Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI)

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Guidelines for Critical Review of Tests & Measures

  1. Descriptive Information
    1. Title, Edition, Dates of Publication and Revision*

Batelle Developmental Inventory Second Edition (BDI 2)

    1. Author (s)

Jean Newborg, 2004

    1. Source (publisher or distributor, address)

Available for purchase at Hough Mifflin Harcourt

    1. Costs (booklets, forms, kit)*

~$1,200 for the initial kit and manipulatives, electronic kits also available

    1. Purpose*

Comprehensive developmental assessment for infants and young children.

    1. Type of Test (eg, screening, evaluative; interview, observation,

Check list or inventory)*


    1. Target Population and Ages*

Birth- 7 years and 11 months old

    1. Time Requirements  – Administration and Scoring*

Can be 1- >3 hours depending on the child and the age

  1. Test Administration
    1. Administration

One examiner can perform, but easier to perform with at least 2 people. Can also be done with multiple disciplines at the same time (PT/OT/ST). There are 5 developmental domains in the test, they can be assessed in any order. The BDI 2 can be administered to children with various disabilities by using modifications. Spanish  and english versions available.

    1. Scoring

Each of the 5 domains ( Adaptive, personal-social, communication, motor, cognitive) can be scored individually but there is also a total score for all 5 domains. Each task is scored on a scale of 0-2.

0= child either did not attempt the response or gave the incorrect response.

1= attempted task or possible immersion of the skill but not performed well enough for full marks

2= skill has been mastered and milestone reached

    1. Type of information, resulting from testing

(e.g. standard scores, percentile ranks)

Percentile rank and confidence interval available



Gastrointestinal (GI) issues in infant and children with autism (ASD) and developmental delays

Jiang X, Matson J, Cervantes P, Matheis M, Burns C. Gastrointestinal Issues in Infants and Children with Autism and Developmental Delays. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 2017. doi:10.1007/s10882-017-9532-6.

1) The purpose of the article, study population, methods, outcome measures, intervention, results

Children with ASD often have other medical complications such as GI issues. GI issues include constipation, diarrhea, and food allergy/intolerance.

The purpose of the study: do GI problems have a significant impact on ASD symptom severity and developmental functioning in children?

112 participants, 17-37 months old. All participants came from the EarlySteps service in Louisiana ( statewide early intervention program). Participants split up into 4 groups: ASD w/o GI issues, ASD with GI issues, atypical development w/o GI issues, atypical development with GI issues.

Methods: This study used the BDI 2 and BISCUIT-  Part 1(Baby and Infant screen for children with autism traits). They were administered by EarlyStep service providers. Diagnostic labels for ASD were given by a psychologist.

No intervention provided. The researchers were just looking for a correlation.

2) Mention of the major strengths/limitations of the article

Limitations: GI difficulties are difficult to diagnosis accurately because the symptoms are often subjective, and the is especially the case in a child with ASD who has trouble communicating. In addition, food and diet were not accounted for which can play a BIG role in digestive/GI stress.

Strengths: Very large survey of people ( original 5317 surveyed children)

strong support from highly trained administrators and presence of a psychologist.

3) Overall conclusion.

Results: Although GI symptom prevalence was higher in participants with ASD than without, it was not significant. GI issues were found to NOT be related to ASD symptom severity. ANOVA tests performed for statistics.

Kids in the ASD groups differed significantly in ASD symptom severity from the atypical group. However, the two atypical groups did not differ from each other.

Mar 04 2017

Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2)

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All information from the previous posts are current regarding the TGMD-2 and the development of the TGMD-3.  The TGMD-2 has been revised and is currently finalizing the normative data. Publication of the TGMD-3 is expected to occur soon.

One study assessing the reliability and validity of the TGMD-3 was located and is summarized below.

Article Summary

Allen, K. A., Bredero, B., Van Damme, T., Ulrich, D. A., & Simons, J. (2017). Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) with the Use of Visual Supports for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Validity and Reliability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

The purpose of the article was to test the validity and reliability of screening children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) with visual aides.  The study aimed to test the ability of the TGMD-3 to assess motor skills in children age 3-10 and to test the inclusion of visual aides to a gross motor skills assessment in children with ASD.  The study was conducted in Australia and used a convenience sampling of 14 children with ASD and a snowball sampling of 21 typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 10. The authors administered the TGMD-3 on the study population of children with ASD using only verbal and physical cues and a second TGMD-3 assessment with visual cue cards for task instruction. The tests were performed on consecutive days, the sequence of tasks was randomized and half the study population started with the TGMD-3 with visual cues and the other half started with the TGMD-3 with only verbal and physical cuing. The typically developing children group only received the TGMD-3 assessment with verbal and physical cuing.  The testing protocol included consistent room setup, color coordinated task stations, and a familiarity period for ASD participants to be introduced to the testing environment and staff. Children with ASD were allocated 45 minutes to complete testing while children in the typically developing group were allocated 30 minutes to complete the motor skills assessment. All TGMD-3 trials included in the study were videotaped and a video analysis software (Dartfish Version 7.0) was used to produce raw scores for TGMD-3.

Statistical analysis of the results was performed to test the reliability and validity of the TGMD-3. Internal consistency at acceptable levels was reported with all groups and subsets of the TGMD-3 except the ball skills subtest in the typically developing children group. Excellent levels of agreement for the test-retest, interrater and intrarater reliability were also reported in the both the typically developing children group and the children with ASD group using both the traditional protocol and the visual aides protocol.

The authors note large standard error measurements in the study and state that it can be expected in this study population, but limits the results’ generalizability. The authors also note limitation of some continued confusion with visual aides within the ASD group. They suggest that less confusing instruction illustrations with the least amount of verbiage is ideal. Some of this confusion was also attributed to developmental differences within the study age range of 4-10; however, it may be possible to improve upon the picture cards used in this study. It is noted that normative data for the TGMD-3 for the general population are still being collected and are not available. The small sample size also limits the generalizability of the findings, but was realistic for such a randomized controlled trial.

The TGMD-3 locomotor subset, ball skills subset, and overall scores of the traditionally developing children were significantly higher than children with ASD with using the TGMD-3 traditional protocol and matched for chronological age and sex. This supports the use of the TGMD-3 to identify children with motor skills deficits. Additionally, a statistically significant difference was shown in the children with ASD group between the scores using the TGMD-3 traditional protocol and the TGMD-3 visual aide protocol.  This supports the inclusion of visual aide methods for task instruction in order to understand and assess true gross motor performance in children with ASD. The results of this study support the use of TGMD-3 visual aide protocol as a valid and reliable gross motor skills assessment for children with ASD and support the inclusion of visual instruction to enhance task understanding in this population.

Mar 05 2017

Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents

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The information listed previously is accurate and still the current information. No information found for MDIC.

Article Summary: The association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health-related quality of life among adolescents

The purpose of this research was to study the relationships between body mass index, physical activity, adherence to Mediterranean diet, with the health related quality of life in Spanish adolescents.  The sample population of 480 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14, 235 girls and 221 boys from 5 of the 55 public schools in the Spanish city of Granada.  Twenty-four of the students were excluded from the study for failure to fill out all of the required questionnaires.

The study compared health related quality of life utilizing the KIDSCREEN 27 questionnaire, 27 items in five categories (physical well-being, psychological well-being, autonomy and parent’s relation, social support and peers and school environment) and compared the results with physical activity, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and body mass index (BMI).  To determine physical activity, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated utilizing a maximal effort shuttle run, and sedentary screen time (self-report).  Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet (MD) was measured using the Evaluation of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) 16 yes-no questions 12 about behaviors consistent with MD diet for example “Do you use olive oil at home?”  and 4 inconsistent questions “Do you eat candy or sweets multiple times a day?”

Statistical analysis was applied to all of the data starting with calculation of the means and standard deviations of all of the variables.  Normality of the data was assessed and finding it was not normally distributed a Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-group comparison and Kruskal-Wallis test was employed for three-group comparison.  Hierarchical linear regression were used to determine whether quality of life could be predicted utilizing Mediterranean diet, BMI and physical activity utilizing a stepwise manner.

Results of the hierarchical analysis indicated that Mediterranean diet accounted for 4.6% of the variance in quality of life with higher adherence to the diet correlating with higher quality of life, BMI accounted for a further 4.1% of the variance with higher BMI correlating with lower quality of life, and 11.3% of the variance accounted for by physical activity with higher levels of physical activity correlating to higher quality of life. When combined these three variables accounted for 20% of the variance in quality of life in the study adolescents.

Strengths of this study were that it is one of the first studies in adolescents to use the Mediterranean diet as a correlate in addition to BMI and physical activity to health related quality of life as well as the relatively large cross sectional sample size.  The major weakness with the study was the results showed a correlation but not a causal relationship between physical activity and quality of life. Also, because all of the questionnaires were self-report they are highly variable in measurement error. In addition, socioeconomic status was not reported, children from lower socioeconomic families may not have access to fresh fruit and vegetables, staples of the Mediterranean diet.

This study suggest that physical activity, BMI and adhering to a Mediterranean diet all correlated to high health related quality of life scores, with physical activity having the greatest impact.  Further research in this area is warranted especially in terms of longitudinal studies with physical activity intervention.

Muros JJ, Salvador Pérez F, Zurita Ortega F, Gámez Sánchez VM, Knox E. The association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health-related quality of life among adolescents. Jornal de Pediatria. January 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jped.2016.10.005.



Mar 05 2017

Bayley Scale of Infant Development-III

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  • The recently posted information is correct with little changes to be made. Slightly updated information includes:
    • Comprehensive kit cost: $1,391
    • Average Reliability Ranges for Subsections: 0.90-0.97
    • Weakness of Test and Measure: This is not an intuitive outcome; individuals need to be familiar with test before administration and may require training.


  • References:
    • Maccow, G. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition [PowerPoint]. Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates; 2008.


Article Summary:

Cahill-Rowley K, Rose J. Temporal-spatial gait parameters and neurodevelopment in very-low-birth-weight preterm toddlers at 18-22 months. Gait & Posture. 2016; 45: 83-89.


The purpose of this study was to assess if the use of gait and temporal-spatial components would identify neurodevelopment in very low birth weight toddlers and full term (typically developing) toddlers. Children born preterm (</= 32 weeks) with very low birth weight (VLBW) (n=79), and full term toddlers (n=43) were included in this study with ages ranging from 18-22 months. Ages were adjusted for infants that were born premature.

Gait temporal-spatial parameters were gained through use of GAITRite mat, requiring 2-3 trials with a total of 12 footfalls analyzed during fast walking. A trained individual assessed motor development of premature infants with the Bayley’s Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III). The BSID-III scores were later compared to temporal-spatial and gait measurements to assess accuracy, since the BSID-III is already a reliable tool in assessing neurodevelopment in infants and toddlers.

The results of this study indicate that infants born prematurely and with lower BSID-III scores (<85) were born 1 week earlier than those with higher BSID-III score (>/= 85). A wider step width and step length asymmetry was found to be significant in preterm toddlers who scored <85 on BSID-III as compared to typically developing toddlers and preterm toddlers who scored >/= 85. Also gait parameters and GA correlated with BSID-III composite motor scores and gross motor sub-scores.

Weaknesses of this article include relying on parent reported age of when independent walking began, limited amount of preterm toddlers with a lower BSID-III scores (n=12 vs. n=67), and multiple reported sample sizes that conflict throughout article. Strengths of this study include large sample size with concentrated age range and the use of a reliable tool for comparison.

Overall, gait parameters including step width and step length asymmetry may be appropriate for use in the clinic to assess neurodevelopment issues; however, until further research is done BSID-III should be used in combination with gait and temporal-spatial parameters.