A Code of Ethics for Privileged Anti-Othering Persons: the humanitarian imperative and Hydra revisited

Posted on: June 29, 2020 | By: Tom Arcaro | Filed under: General posts on the humanitarian aid industry, Hydra "privileging forces"

A Code of Ethics for Privileged Anti-Othering Persons: the humanitarian imperative and Hydra revisited

 

Humanitarianism started off as a powerful discourse; now it is a discourse of power, both at the international and at the community level.” (p. 190)

–Antonio Donini “Humanitarianism, Perceptions, and Power”

In the Eyes of Others (Abu Sada, editor; 2012)

 

Overview
Below I expand on previous posts related to the humanitarian imperative, the ‘privileging forces’ Hydra, and the  quest for global social justice. Studying and engaging with humanitarians all over the world has provided me with a broad base of insights, and I especially thank those from the majority world (aka Global South) who have so patiently offered me their thoughts, feelings, and opinions.

The recent reemergence of a surprisingly inclusive #BlackLivesMatter movement both here in the US and around the world has many talking frankly about systemic racism and toxic white nationalism, and these conversations have generated action. One perhaps not insignificant example of change is the fact that NASCAR, the auto racing organization most popular in the US Southeast has recently banned confederate flags at sanctioned events. These flags have long been a racist symbol and commonly found in abundance at NASCAR races.  This change was initiated by one Black driver and then embraced by the policy makers in NASCAR. A second and related example is that Mississippi appears to be on the verge of changing its long divisive flag, deleting the confederate flag embedded in the upper corner.

Within the humanitarian sector there are #BlackLIvesMatter conversations being held. Here is the statement by MSF-USA describing racism as a public health crisis. MSF International’s position is similar, admitting that the organization had ‘failed to tackle institutional racism’, but noting that, “We get a lot of ‘all lives matter’ reaction from colleagues from different parts of the world. … Context is everything.” The deep intersectionality between racism and colonialism embedded within the humanitarian sector needs very close scrutiny and eventually aggressive action at every level, especially within the UN organizations and ‘big box’ INGO’s like World Vision and others. The seriousness and scale of this self examination and policy change must be even more progressive and soul-searching that was done in reaction to the OXFAM (and others) #MeToo crisis.

The Hydra
Last October I attended the ALNAP conference in Berlin, a mixed gathering of humanitarian practitioners and academics like myself who have studied and commented on the humanitarian ecosystem.  There I used the metaphor of the mythical Hydra, a multi-headed monster, to talk about how all of the privileging forces that serve to oppress those marginalized all over the globe, almost always the object of humanitarian actions. The underlying fuel to keep the Hydra alive and active is the toxic and pervasive process of othering which inevitably leads quickly from differentiation (A ≠ B) to stratification (A ≠ B therefore A > B) and using any power asymmetry to justify the ‘isms’.

Many are now learning both old and new lessons about how deeply racism is baked into the US (and global) culture, and most are seeking ways to directly and productively join the movement toward true racial justice. JLove Calderon and Tim Wise offer this statement in an article titled, “Code of Ethics for White Anti-Racists

“We are persons classified as white in this society. As aspiring anti-racist allies/collaborators, we seek to work with people of color (and follow their leadership) to create real multiracial democracy. We do not fight racism on behalf of people of color, or as an act of charity. We oppose white supremacy because it is an unjust system, and we believe in the moral obligation to resist injustice.”

This statement, all of it, spoke to me, and I immediately related it to the lessons I have been learning listening to humanitarians from the majority world. Without using the phrase, they undercut the ‘white savior complex’ and voice support for a humanitarian perspective. Read here what some of the respondents said on our survey of humanitarians from the majority world and for further observations about the ‘white savior complex.’

Over 30 years ago Kimberle Crenshaw presented us with the conceptual tool of intersectionality. In this 2017 interview she reflects,

“Intersectionality is a lens through which you can see where power comes and collides, where it interlocks and intersects.”

Humanitarian principles and intersectionality are a critical topic as efforts to make structural, permanent change regarding all privileging forces multiply and matures.

So, with deep gratitude to Calderon and Wise, I offer here a “Code of Ethics for Privileged Anti-Othering Persons”, addressing all seven heads off the Hydra.

We are persons classified as privileged in our global society. As aspiring anti-patriarcal, anti-racist, anti-colonial, anti-hetero/cisnormativity, anti-classist, anti-ablist, and anti-ageist allies/collaborators, we seek to work with people differently privileged (and to follow their leadership) in order to create a more just world where all humans have pathways to dignity.  We do not fight these privileging forces on behalf of those marginalized, or as an act of charity. We oppose privileging forces because they create unjust systems, and we believe in the moral obligation to resist injustice.

The fact that these privileging forces are woven deep into the fabric of all modern global cultures and that they ‘interlock and intersect’ with each other makes confronting them difficult.  Like a cancer, these privileging forces infect all institutions of the social system, none are sparred. Religion. Education. Sport and leisure. The economy. Family. Government. Military. Media. Entertainment. All are infected, and all, again, ‘interlock and intersect’ to synergistically and effectively maintain structures of marginalization and oppression. All must be seen as mutually interdependent. In addition, the economic determinists will point out that an amoral -and hence, I argue, immoral global capitalism works synergistically with the heads of the othering body of the Hydra.

Embracing a “Code of Ethics for Privileged Anti-Othering Persons” means understanding that one simultaneously may be privileged and marginalized. For example a queer Black male from the minority world, aka Global North, enjoys male and Global North privilege while enduing heternormativity and racism. Privilege always depends upon the social context currently inhabited and changes even moment to moment.

Humanitarian imperative
For me, the humanitarian imperative begins with the assumption that all human lives have equal value, and every human deserves a life marked by dignity and access to basic human rights. Those who commit to humanitarian values must aggressively fight all of the systemic ‘isms’ represented by the heads of the Hydra.  Cutting off one head is not only futile but impossible; as per the myth of the Hydra it will only come back as two. Hence the body off the Hydra, fed by toxic othering, must be the focus of our attacks.  That means a comprehensive and coordinated effort to address all systemic misuse of power certainly by individuals but even more importantly by institutions wielding power, clearly including the humanitarian sector itself.

Though our illustration above implies otherwise, some heads of the Hydra might well be seen as far more important than others.  To wit, racism impacts most of the people on this planet, and thus must be confronted with full measure of effort. That said, the fight against systemic racism need be anchored in rooting out power misuse allowing for all forms of toxic othering.

How can this be accomplished by an underfunded humanitarian industry designed mostly to respond to natural and human made crises? There is no quick or easy answer to that, but I do suspect that Donini (quoted above) is right: humanitarianism is a discourse of power. One very important step in understanding and then changing toxic power arrangements is to listen to and work with those who have been marginalized by misuse of power.  Those who are multiply marginalized (especially women of color) have much to teach, and it is our job to listen and to follow their lead, always demanding an inclusive scope of both understanding and action.

One such voice is Namati. Established five years ago, Namati.org is a global legal empowerment movement.  From their web site: “Namati means ‘bending the arc.’ With leadership from those most impacted, we will bend the arc of history together.”  The current #BlackLIvesMatter movement is a necessary and vital part of bending the ‘moral arc of the universe toward justice.’1

This phrase has a long history, with President Barak Obama borrowing it from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. who adapted it from abolitionist minister Theodore Parker. Parker said,

“I do not pretend to understand the moral universe. The arc is a long one. My eye reaches but little ways. I cannot calculate the curve and complete the figure by experience of sight. I can divine it by conscience. And from what I see I am sure it bends toward justice.”

Bending this arc is a long process, and one that takes constant, coordinated effort. Gains won must be aggressively preserved or they can be lost very quickly. The Namati organization has it right: legal changes are key in bending the arc. But it must be

Rev Dr ML King, Jr. “I Have a Dream” speech

stressed that structures within all other social institutions must be altered as well. Humanitarians have great potential and responsibility as ‘arc benders’ and, as stressed one more time, demands accepting leadership ‘from those most impacted.’

Understanding interconnected and baked in privileging forces and then responding to the humanitarian imperative is hard, complicated, and a long term commitment. But is a commitment mandated by our devotion to the cause of justice for all. This mandate includes, well, inclusion, and we must act on the fact that all of the heads of the Hydra and fueled by othering and hate. In the words of the late John Lewis, champion of civil rights, we must “Continue to build union between movements stretching across the globe because we must put away our willingness to profit from the exploitation of others.” The title of his posthumously published editorial is “Together, You Can Redeem the Soul of your Nation” but I feel he would approve of this re-statement: “Together, we can redeem the soul of humanity” so that it adds a call to action for those subscribing to the “Code of Ethics for Privileged Anti-Othering Persons” discussed above. To “redeem the soul of humanity” and to bend the moral arc of the universe toward justice means confronting, challenging, and changing some near-sacred social structures.  Focused social change is never quick nor easy, and we must be willing to make “good trouble” to make this happen.

Final note
My students have suggested that the Hydra needs another head describing our species’ anthropocentric perspective and the consequent destructive ‘ecocidal’ relationship we have with the environment. We ‘other’ the very natural world that sustains us and this has led us to the brink of a massive climate disaster, which has already exasperated humanitarian crises across the globe, mostly in the majority world.  This impact is an example of environmental racism in action, and as such merits our immediate attention. Adding ‘anthropocentrism’ as an additional head to the Hydra may be in order.

As always, if you have any comment or feedback please contact me at arcaro@elon.edu.

And yes, I will be watching “Bending the Arc” when it is released and share my thoughts.


1This section on bending the arc toward justice is an edited version of what I previously posted here.

Tom Arcaro

Tom Arcaro

Tom Arcaro is a professor of sociology at Elon University. He has been researching and studying the humanitarian aid and development ecosystem for nearly two decades and in 2016 published 'Aid Worker Voices'. He is currently working on a second book tentatively titled 'Aid Worker Voices from the Majority World'.

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