Paying College Athletes- Additional Resources

  1.  6 Dec. 2016. ~ The author suggests that it is unfair for paying college athletes in the U.S. to pay for their tuition as they could improve college basketball. Topics discussed include the increasing number of prospective basketball players who cannot afford to go to college as of September 2013, the symbiotic relationships between the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the details of the hardship rule established by the NBA for poor athletes. ~ This article talks about how many of the players are finding the NCAA treats them unfairly. More importantly, this article talks about how the NCAA forbids all players from engaging in endorsements from brand name companies and how some universities are trying to give athletes the chance to be able to accept deals and sell autographs.  November 2nd 2016.  ~ This article discusses recent the big money that is made off of the promotion of college sports. It discusses how important these sporting events have become to our culture, which allows corporations to turn a rather large profit. Unfortunately, very little of this money generated by the success of the athletes is ever seen by them. The article argues that this is a flaw in the system, and college athletes should not be taken advantage of by this. The article includes verification and evidence. Being published by The Atlantic, which is considered a respectable news network, this article can be considered reliable.  15, Nov. 2016. ~ This article is about the history of college scholarships. The article discusses the origins of amateur college sports. The site also explains how the NCAA was initially created with the intention of aiding students as they pursued finding an a college program, and providing funding that rewarded their athletics abilities. The article also explains how scholarships gradually changed, and how this modern system affects the experience of college athletes. The article comes from a site intended to aid potential college athletes by providing information on athletic scholarships.  15 Nov. 2016. ~ This article discusses athletic scholarships. The article provides insight into the probability of receiving a college scholarship out of high school, and how little money is available in term of scholarships- averaging around $13000. This source shows how difficult it is to obtain a scholarships, and how hard many athletes work to receive these scholarships. The article goes on to explain that because of this pressure the transfer rate among college athletes is very high. The article claims that the stakes for college scholarships are too high for them to be beneficial to student. ~ Karaim, Reed. “Paying College Athletes: Are Players School Employees?.” CQ Researcher 24.25 (2014): 577-600. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 Dec. 2016. ~ This investigation used the survey method to analyze college students’ perceptions on additional payments, beyond an athletic scholarship, to intercollegiate student-athletes. Four components of college students’ perceptions were examined: Whether student-athletes should be allowed to receive payment, proponents’ arguments, opponents’ arguments, and the revenue source that should provide the funding if the NCAA were to allow payment. Results revealed: (a) College students’ supported payment to college student-athletes, (b) College students’ perceived illegal payments would decline if payment was allowed, (c) Opponents’ of payment believed an athletic scholarship is adequate payment, and (d) The additional funding should come from the athletic department of the university. These findings suggest that for athletic conferences exhibiting high levels of “corporate athleticism”  college students’ support paying intercollegiate student-athletes. 24 Nov. 2016~ This article refers to a multitude of statistics regarding the economic gains athletic programs make annually. Additionally, this article includes whether it would be possible (economically), to pay college athletes fixed wages. The article also includes multi-variable graphs that cover data on annual revenue for different athletic programs, and percentages of how many college athletes that end up making it to the professional level. ~ ” 6 Dec. 2016 ~ Denying players a basic stipend when coaches are making ridiculous amounts is the height of inequity. But paying football and men’s basketball players isn’t feasible, given Title IX regulations and politics. If you disconnect money making sports, women’s sports will very likely lose financing. Paying basketball and football players will not address the core problem of an unsustainable arms race in college sports. Dec. 4, 2016 ~ This article by Joe Nocera entertains the idea of paying college athletes. Nocera writes about his investigation into the $2000 stipend that was offered to athletes in addition to a regular scholarship. While the $2000 was not considered part of an athlete’s scholarship, it was also not considered pay. According to NCAA president, Mark Emmert, it was used to compensate for the $3500 of tuition that scholarships did not cover. Unfortunately, universities were quick to argue that they did not have the funds necessary to provide students with this additional funding. As a result the program, of sorts, was cancelled, with the exception of the students that had already signed a contract to receive it. Nocera argues the hypocrisy of this, as large football and basketball programs are known to generate millions of dollars in revenue. This article is well supported with evidence collected by the author, including statistics and quotes directly from sources. ~ 6 Dec. 2016 ~ The multibillion-dollar industry that college sports has become has richly rewarded the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), university athletic programs and top football and basketball coaches. Athletes, however, continue to play under a decades-old system in which scholarships pay for tuition and room and board but fall short of covering the full cost of attending school. In return, players are expected to maintain a rigorous training and playing schedule while keeping up their studies. A recent ruling that Northwestern University football players are school employees and thus have the right to unionize, along with class-action lawsuits demanding more compensation and better treatment for college athletes, has amplified debate over whether they should be paid. Supporters of the system say the education and training athletes receive are adequate compensation; critics say college athletes are being exploited. Observers also differ over whether colleges could afford salaries for players, and whether schools should pay more attention to athletes’ academic experience. ~ This is an ESPN article that talks about how some schools have started giving out four year guaranteed scholarships to their student athletes. It also talks about that some schools that won’t make the switch. ~ This article discusses how collegiate athletics could lie to athletes who go to colleges for sports but once they get injured, their scholarships could get revoked and they might have to pay for all of their medical expenses. It also talks about specific ways of how the NCAA should protect their athletes such as providing extensive medical coverage to all athletes that is provided by the NCAA.

    Sack, Allen L., and Ellen J. Staurowsky. College Athletes for Hire : The Evolution and Legacy of the NCAA’s Amateur Myth. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998. Web. ~ Source is relevant to the topic involving collegiate sports. The book contains several articles that look into the history of college sports. Also, it appears to contain accurate information (based on popularity, and reviews). 6 Dec. 2016.  ~ This article discusses how overuse of college athletes has lead to a significant increase in the amount of injuries that these athletes obtain in just a short period of time as they are rushed back from rehabilitation in order to play again. They discuss although there may be more focus on protecting the players while they are on the field, once they get off the field, they are subject to injuries due to overworking and year-long practice seasons. 21 Nov. 2016 ~ Located on JSTOR, this document written by Allen Sanderson, dives into the essential questions behind paid college athletics. Sanderson speaks of four main elements that help keep athletic programs afloat: (1) the demand for television broadcast rights for live programs, (2) stable attendance for sports events must be large, (3) alumni presence to keep strong connections and to keep donations an existing entity, and lastly (4) a cartel agreement to limit compensation for the essential input required to stage the games. In this source, Sanderson speaks of how athletic programs can easily stay successful if they have these four components. Percentages and statistics are used to make the claim that there is a possibility that college athletes might be paid one day. ~ This article talks about some of the deals college players are taking illegally from companies.  This article shows that many teams are plagued by these scandals because athletes are looking for a way of payment. ~ This source talks about how the quality of life for collegiate athletes could be worse than the quality of life for non-athletes because of different health complications that could arise by playing these sports. The article goes into detail about how the stresses that athletes put on their bodies during college is extremely unhealthy and causes them to suffer later in life due to payments for their injuries that they sustained or living with pain throughout their life because of injuries accrued during their college sports days. ~ This article showed that the NCAA makes so much profit that they can easily pay athletes each year. It shows that many athletes, coaches, and professors have grouped together in order to discuss how athletes could be paid in the future. 07 Nov. 2016. ~ This article discusses specific cases in which college athletes were wronged by their schools when they were injured and either didn’t tell the student that they were seriously injured or they just refused to pay for medical expenses at all. It also goes into certain NCAA rules that don’t force the NCAA or these schools to pay for athlete’s scholarships or medical expenses if they don’t want to. 18 Jul. 2011, 19 Nov. 2016. ~ This article composed by Michael Wilbon is an article that justifies the benefits and reality behind paying college athletes. Wilbon makes the claim that if we were to implement paid salaries for college athletes, the salaries would range. Wilbon compares it to the analogy with signed autographs from college athletes. Wilbon states that college athletes are to not autograph memorabilia for fans, and it is deemed illegal by the NCAA. Wilbon is upset with the fact that these institutions can acquire a plethora amount of money, and the athletes themselves cannot make a dime or even sign a jersey with their name on it. According to the NCAA student-athletes may not allow their name, picture or personal appearance to advertise, recommend or promote the sale or use of any commercial products, services or businesses. 15 Nov. 2016.~ This publication is written by Andrew Zimbalist, a writer for the New York Times Upfront magazine. This source discusses the topic of college athletes competing at the professional level, and if these individuals should or should not receive pay. After reading and analyzing the first few chapters, it is clear that Zimbalist believes that it is possible to incorporate paid wages for college athletes. Zimbalist throughout the opening chapters refers to college athletes as “unpaid professionals”. Additionally, Zimbalist refers to multiple historical occasions at which school athletic programs gained economic revenue from more than ticket sales. This would include the multi-million dollar contracts universities would have television broadcasting companies as well as merchandising deals with apparel. Another thread that is made throughout the book is the reality that only a small fraction of college athletes make it to the professional level. Zimbalist, on the contrary, also values the contradiction of his thesis. He states that cutting out money from the school will only remove a large portion of that particular school’s academic benefits.